Immigrants have accepted several aspects of the indigenous culture, but a national culture has not evolved. Commercial, settler, missionary, and British colonial interests imposed Western ideologies and infrastructures on the native peoples and Asian immigrants that facilitated the operation of a British crown colony. The indigenous name of the islands is Viti, an Austronesian word meaning "east" or "sunrise.
However, we do not have to restrict ourselves to arcane scholarly debates in order to analyze the ritual aspects of conflict transformationas they can also be discussed from a practical and intuitive perspective. For this discussion we shall concentrate on two areas, post-conflict reconstruction and conflict mediation loosely defined here as third-party interventions to mitigate a dispute between two or more persons or groups.
In order to set the stage for an examination of ritual in peacebuilding and mediation, we will first briefly review influential studies of human social rituals. Social scientific analyses of rituals have been conducted primarily by anthropologists.
Van Gennep adopted a process view of rituals, arguing that they should be considered as social institutions that enable marked transitions in social status. He identified three parts of the ritual process: The separation phase marks the beginning of ritual events. It signals the departure from the normal social world and its attendant values, norms, and habituated patterns of behavior.
The transition represents what scholars term a "liminal state. Turner describes the liminal state as "anti-structure," connoting the relaxation of the mores and rules of the everyday social structure. The potential fluidity of liminality is central to understanding why rituals are often essential in enabling social groups to adapt to and institutionalize change.
The term "anti-structure" is also suggestive of another aspect of liminality; liminal social arenas can be highly stylized, representing a parallel universe with its own norms and expectations that are often the inverse of the usual social structure. For example, Turner describes African ceremonies in which chiefs, who usually command respect, are ridiculed and even stoned.
Such ritual events can have their own internal logic and rules. In their studies of African societies, Max Gluckman and Victor Turner noted how, in addition to rites of passage, ritual events were also prominent in conflict management.
His book The Ritual Process  is essential reading for those interested in further exploring this topic. In what was probably the first cross-cultural study of negotiation and mediation, Philip Gulliver drew from his research in Eastern Africa and North America to describe what he considered an underlying structure to the negotiation process .
Rituals and Post-War Reconciliation in Mozambique Rituals have a complex role in violence and peacemaking. For example, the process of becoming a soldier has ritualistic elements. During boot camp, prospective soldiers occupy a special social status as initiates, their appearances are changed-their heads are shaved, their previous dress is replaced by uniforms, etc.
The experience of soldiers exhibits many parallels with that of initiates in other social groups such as prospective priests, youths undergoing puberty rites, and so forth. Peacebuilding efforts also often involve symbols and rituals, and Western-led post-war demobilization and integration programs could benefit from having a ritual component.
A Different Kind of War Story is, in part, a chronicle of how a population resisted violenceoften using ritual and symbols to do so.
For example, she relates how villagers kidnapped some forcibly conscripted soldiers and rebels and returned them to their families and communities. Spirit mediums persons who communicate with spirits and populist religious leaders such as Manuel Antonio were instrumental in mobilizing villagers.
Based on his reputation of supernatural prowess and his practice of imbuing his recruits with magical protection against violent injury, Antonio formed an anti-war organization that secured entire regions, creating oases of calm in war-torn Mozambique.
While Nordstrom is an anthropologist, A Different Kind of War Story represents a valuable read that is a relatively accessible work for a conflict resolution audience unfamiliar with the discipline of anthropology. After the conclusion of the civil war, Mozambique, like other countries in similar situations, faced the problem of how to effectively demobilize former combatants and persuade them to abandon their violent lifestyles.
Armies socialize their soldiers so that they will adopt the proper perspective and be able to overcome inhibitions against violence. Soldiers are given a new identity that accompanies their training and psychological preparation to kill, a training that encompasses the dehumanization of the enemy and the overcoming of the normal social prohibitions against violence and killing.
In civil wars, fighters on both sides often become accustomed to the casual use of violence and the easy availability of booty. This, combined with the social-psychological ramifications of violent conflict, often make post-conflict reintegration very difficult.
Mozambican villagers were able to craft creative solutions, however. They engaged in rituals designed to heal the veterans and their support staff and reintegrate them into their community.
As they put it, they had to "take the war out of these soldiers" . As Nordstrom underlines, villagers and spirit mediums relied on both their collective knowledge and their individual creativity to oppose violence. In other words, they used their intelligence and social knowledge to consciously craft their strategies of resistance.
However, their practices also demonstrated the importance of structure, as they did not simply create new procedures out of thin air but built upon the legacy of existing values, norms, and patterns of behavior in their society.
Thus, unmaking violence involves reconstructing the social world or ethnoscape. Violence and war are, in many ways, the antithesis of the ideal of ordered, harmonious communal life. Violence and village life are thus oppositional to one another.
Part of reintroducing former combatants into a functional and relatively pacific social existence thus involved reintegrating them into their communities and rebuilding their bonds with the community members; bonds which in Mozambique, as in most collectivist societies, acted to maintain social order, as the presence of others is vital to curtailing anti-social behavior and maintaining taboos.
Rituals have played a role in other post-conflict situations.Essay on Tribal Family and Kinship in India. Article shared by Children learn about their customs, traditions, taboos, art, music and dancing from the family.
The most profound impact of kinship ties on the social life may be felt through kinship usages found in every society. Kinship usage’s among the tribes of India present very. The Inner Conflict of Tradition: Essays in Indian Ritual, Kinship, and Society (Essays in Indian Ritual, Kingship, and Society) by J.
C. Heesterman () Paperback – by. Culture Comparisons Between the!Kung Culture and the Indian Culture Words | 4 Pages Family, Marriage and Kinship ties of Indian culture specifically of the . 【】The Inner Conflict of 通信販売 Tradition: お買い得 Essays in Indian ショッピング Ritual, Kinship, and Society/UNIV OF CHICAGO PR/J.
C. Heesterman (ペーパーバック)：VALUE BOOKS. Culture and Conflict: Connections.
Cultures are embedded in every conflict because conflicts arise in human relationships. Cultures affect the ways we name, frame, blame, and attempt to tame conflicts. Whether a conflict exists at all is a cultural question.
The book The Inner Conflict of Tradition: Essays in Indian Ritual, Kinship, and Society, J. C. Heesterman is published by University of Chicago Press.