Diem Nguyen contributed photos. The terrain of Vietnam is varied, with mountainous regions, thick forested areas, and lowlands leading down from the rugged mountains to coastal plains and river deltas. Population of Vietnam Inthe population of Vietnam was
Beforemost Vietnamese residing in the US were the wives and children of American servicemen or academics. Records   indicate that a few Vietnamese including Ho Chi Minh arrived and performed menial work during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
According to the Immigration and Naturalization ServiceVietnamese arrived as immigrants between andbut the figure excludes students, diplomats, and military trainees. The April 30, fall of Saigonwhich ended the Vietnam War, prompted the first large-scale wave of immigration; many with close ties to America or the government South Vietnam government feared communist reprisals.
Most of the first-wave immigrants were well-educated, financially comfortable, and proficient in English. Less than 5 percent were fishermen or farmers. The week before Saigon fell, 15, people left on scheduled flights followed by an additional 80, also evacuated by air. The last group was carried on U.
After preparations for resettlement, they were assigned to one of nine voluntary agencies VOLAGs to help them find financial and personal support from sponsors in the U.
To prevent the refugees from forming ethnic enclaves and minimize their impact on local communities, they were distributed throughout the country,  but within a few years, many resettled in California and Texas. A second wave of Vietnamese refugees arrived from to the mids. Political and economic instability under the new communist government led to a migration unprecedented in Vietnam.
South Vietnamese, particularly former military officers and government employees, were sent to " reeducation camps ," which were really concentration campsfor intensive political indoctrination. Famine was widespread, and businesses were seized and nationalized. Over 70 percent of the first immigrants were from urban areas, but the " boat people " were generally lower socioeconomically, as most were peasant farmers or fishermen, small-town merchants or former military officials.
Survivors were picked up by foreign ships and brought to asylum camps in ThailandMalaysiaSingaporeIndonesiaHong Kongand the Philippines from which they entered countries that agreed to accept them.
Additional legislation permitted Amerasian children and former political prisoners and their families to enter the US. Vietnamese immigration peaked inwhen many re-education-camp inmates were released and sponsored by their families in the US.
Between andthe country acceptedVietnamese political refugees and asylum-seekers. By the early s, a secondary resettlement was underway. Vietnamese refugees were initially scattered throughout the country in wherever they could find sponsorship.
Economic and social factors, many then moved to warmer states, such as California and Texas, with larger Vietnamese communities, better jobs, and social safety nets. As opposed to the earlier history of Vietnamese migration that stemmed predominantly from refugees, an overwhelming majority of Vietnamese are now granted LPR on the basis of family sponsored preferences or by way of immediate relatives to U.
Language was the first barrier Vietnamese refugees with limited English proficiency had to overcome. English uses tonal inflection sparingly primarily for questions ; Vietnamese, a tonal language, uses variations in tone to differentiate between meanings of a sound. Ma can have one of six meanings, depending on tone: Vietnamese American parents have expressed concern about decreasing authority over their children.
Part of this concern is due to cultural differences; although corporal punishment is accepted in Vietnamese society as an effective way of educating children.
About 40 percent of the children of resettled refugees experienced an increase in conduct and oppositional defiant disorders.
A study by Chung et al. The study examined the psychosocial adjustment of two groups of Vietnamese refugees who migrated to the U. The three surveys accounted for cultural assimilation; how closely an individual related to their culture of origin relative to American culture, and individual placement on scales for generalized anxiety and depression respectively.
Chung separated the groups into first- and second-wave refugees; first-wave Southeast Asian refugees SEAR were defined as arriving in the U. In wave two, six percent of those tested by Chung et al.
The study indicated that the young refugees experienced significant short- and long-term emotional and mental distress throughout their lives. In contrast to Vietnamese refugees who settled in France or Germanyand similar to their counterparts who arrived in CanadaThe Czech RepublicThe United Kingdom and Australiarefugees arriving in the United States often had a lower socioeconomic standing in their home country and more difficulty integrating due to greater linguistic and cultural barriers.
Vietnamese Americans have arrived in the U. While not as academically or financially accomplished collectively as their East Asian counterparts, census data indicates that Vietnamese Americans are an upwardly-mobile group; their economic status improved substantially between and They were employed in blue-collar jobs, such as electrical engineering and machine assembling.
In downtown San Josemany Vietnamese work as restaurant cooks, repairmen and movers.In fact, the Tet offensive was a military disaster for the NVA and Viet Cong, later admitted by North Vietnamese military leaders. Decades later . chemical (highly toxic) used in the Vietnam War by the United States to destroyed forest so that it's easier for American planes to see/bomb North Vietnamese soldiers.
How did television affect the perception of the Vietnam war? American Chinese food builds from styles and food habits brought from the southern province of Guangdong, often from the Toisan district of Toisan, the origin of most Chinese immigration before the closure of immigration from China in These Chinese families developed new styles and used readily available ingredients, especially in California.
American and North Vietnamese Perceptions of War To the American Soldiers and the NVA/VC soldiers, the Vietnam War was both very similar and very different. Most of soldiers in Vietnam went into the war with a purpose, and . An audio recording has surfaced proving that U.S.
Senator John McCain collaborated with the North Vietnamese by recording a “Tokyo Rose”-style propaganda message that was broadcast on North Vietnamese radio in For many years, American former P.O.W.s who were in the “Hanoi Hilton” North.
The American Empire. By Wade Frazier. Revised July Purpose and Disclaimer. Timeline. Introduction. The New World Before “Discovery,” and the First Contacts.